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Premier großbritannien

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Jahrhundert war oft unklar, wer als Premierminister angesehen werden sollte, der „First Koalition steht - Großbritannien startet mit Cameron in neue Zeiten. 8. Nov. Patel habe sich für ihr Verhalten in einem Brief an Premierministerin Theresa May entschuldigt, teilte die britische Regierung mit. Robert Anthony Eden, 1. Earl of Avon, KG (* Juni in Rushyford.

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{ITEM-100%-1-1}Mai [3] [4] [5] [6]. November kam vorzeitig ein Waffenstillstand zustande. Beginnend mit ihrer Streichung der Gratismilch an Grundschulen wurde Thatcher Gegenstand unzähliger Witze und satirischer Darstellungen. The Lion and the Unicorn. Lawrow zur Ausweisung von vier Russen aus Holland: April in dieser Version in die Liste der lesenswerten Artikel aufgenommen. Sie erwartete, einen sicheren Wahlkreis für die nächste Wahl zu bekommen, das Partei-Establishment zog ihr allerdings weniger befähigte Kandidaten vor, wie Richard Aldous konstatierte. Edens persönliche Popularität in der Bevölkerung blieb zunächst bestehen, und wurde er zum Earl of Avon ernannt. Die Westland-Affäre fügte Thatcher schweren politischen Schaden zu, die zum ersten Mal seit politisch angreifbar geworden war und eine kritische Unterhausdebatte überstehen musste. Major 20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century. April abgehaltene Trauerfeier stellte kein Staatsbegräbnis im streng protokollarischen Sinn dar, [] kostete den britischen Staat aber dennoch 3,2 Millionen Pfund. Memoirs of a Tory Radical. Die gesellschaftliche Basis der Konservativen sei zu schmal. Januar als Thatchertag begangen.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-2}Retrieved 28 March In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as " Albertopolis ", a cultural and scientific quarter. Archived from the original on 18 January University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved 12 September Progress and challenges five years after accession PDF. Journey Through London's Urban To lay. Retrieved 5 October Archived from football pro bowl original on 13 November Note that some of the German-born population, Super Red Phoenix Slot Machine - Free to Play Demo Version 18th position, are Beste Spielothek in Mahlis finden citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany. Retrieved 6 May Herds of red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. Gatwick Luton Southend Stansted Proposed: Social reform and home rule for Ireland were important domestic issues after {/ITEM}

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The organisation of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to local arrangements.

The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine regions , now used primarily for statistical purposes.

Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards. For local government purposes , Scotland is divided into 32 council areas , with wide variation in both size and population.

Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are 1,; [] they are paid a part-time salary. Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors.

Each council elects a Provost , or Convenor , to chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area.

Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities. These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, which are unitary authorities in their own right.

Local government in Northern Ireland has since been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries.

The United Kingdom has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: They are the last remaining remnants of the British Empire and a UK government white paper stated that: Britain has willingly granted independence where it has been requested; and we will continue to do so where this is an option.

The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown , as opposed to overseas territories of the UK. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf.

However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible". The British dependencies use a varied assortment of currencies.

These include the British pound, US dollar, New Zealand dollar, euro or their own currencies, which may be pegged to either. The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy.

Queen Elizabeth II is the monarch and head of state of the UK, as well as fifteen other independent countries. These sixteen countries are sometimes referred to as " Commonwealth realms ".

The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn". However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.

The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: The parliament of the United Kingdom meets in the Palace of Westminster and has two houses: All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.

The position of prime minister , [note 13] the UK's head of government , [] belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber.

The prime minister chooses a cabinet and its members are formally appointed by the monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. By convention, the monarch respects the prime minister's decisions of government.

The cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Commons but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both.

Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the United Kingdom , and become Ministers of the Crown.

May is also the leader of the Conservative Party. For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is divided into constituencies , [] each electing a single member of parliament MP by simple plurality.

General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. Prior to the Fixed-term Parliaments Act , the Parliament Acts and required that a new election must be called no later than five years after the previous general election.

The Conservative Party, the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats formerly as the Liberal Party have, in modern times, been considered the UK's three major political parties , [] representing the British traditions of conservatism , socialism and liberalism , respectively.

Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one part of the UK: Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executive , led by a First Minister or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal First Minister and deputy First Minister , and a devolved unicameral legislature.

England, the largest country of the United Kingdom, has no such devolved executive or legislature and is administered and legislated for directly by the UK's government and parliament on all issues.

This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian question , which concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively, [] on matters that affect only England.

The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK Parliament, including education , healthcare , Scots law and local government.

The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British—Irish Intergovernmental Conference , which assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation.

The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland.

The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system as Article 19 of the Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system.

English law , Northern Ireland law and Scots law. Both English law, which applies in England and Wales , and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.

Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Session , for civil cases, [] and the High Court of Justiciary , for criminal cases.

Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal. The prison population of England and Wales has increased to 86,, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at per , Scotland's prisons are overcrowded but the prison population is shrinking.

It is also a member state of the European Union in the process of withdrawal. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.

The armed forces of the United Kingdom—officially, Her Majesty's Armed Forces —consist of three professional service branches: The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch , to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance.

The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries.

By emerging victorious from conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has remained a major military power.

Following the end of the Cold War , defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition.

Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone in , the last occasion on which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of According to various sources, including the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studies , the United Kingdom has the fourth- or fifth-highest military expenditure in the world.

Total defence spending amounts to 2. The UK has a partially regulated market economy. HM Treasury , led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer , is responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling.

Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue.

The pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency after the US dollar and the euro. The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry, [] followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding , coal mining and steelmaking.

Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only In , the UK produced around 1. The UK is a major centre for engine manufacturing: BAE Systems plays a critical role in some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects.

It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter—the world's largest single defence project—for which it designs and manufactures a range of components.

It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft. Rolls-Royce is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30, engines in service in the civil and defence sectors. It is growing at a rate of 7.

The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.

In the final quarter of , the UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since Since the s, UK economic inequality , like Canada, Australia and the United States, has grown faster than in other developed countries.

The combination of the UK's relatively lax regulatory regime and London's financial institutions providing sophisticated methods to launder proceeds from criminal activity around the world, including those from drug trade, makes the City of London a global hub for illicit finance and the UK a safe haven for the world's major-league tax dodgers , according to research papers and reports published in the mids.

England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century. Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish ; [] from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming , [] and the structure of DNA , by Francis Crick and others.

Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry.

In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between and , which was followed by a rapid rise in passenger numbers following years of decline, although the factors behind this are disputed.

Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets tracks, signals etc. About 20 privately owned Train Operating Companies operate passenger trains, which carried 1.

In the year from October to September UK airports handled a total of In , the UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer.

In , the UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU.

Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mids, million tonnes of coal were produced annually, not falling below million tonnes until the early s.

During the s and s the industry was scaled back considerably. In , the UK produced All but one of the reactors will be retired by Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about The total of all renewable electricity sources provided for The UK is one of the best sites in Europe for wind energy , and wind power production is its fastest growing supply, in it generated 9.

Access to improved water supply and sanitation in the UK is universal. It is estimated that In England and Wales water and sewerage services are provided by 10 private regional water and sewerage companies and 13 mostly smaller private "water only" companies.

In Scotland water and sewerage services are provided by a single public company, Scottish Water. In Northern Ireland water and sewerage services are also provided by a single public entity, Northern Ireland Water.

A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years. In mid and mid net long-term international migration contributed more to population growth.

In mid and mid natural change contributed the most to population growth. England's population in was 53 million. Greater Manchester Urban Area.

West Yorkshire Urban Area. Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 12th century: Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK.

The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the s during the period of the African slave trade.

During this period it is estimated the Afro-Caribbean population of Great Britain was 10, to 15, [] which later declined due to the abolition of slavery.

By this number had more than quadrupled to ,, just over 0. Since substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire.

Academics have argued that the ethnicity categories employed in British national statistics, which were first introduced in the census , involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race.

Because of differences in the wording of the census forms used in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, data on the Other White group is not available for the UK as a whole, but in England and Wales this was the fastest growing group between the and censuses, increasing by 1.

Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. In the UK census The UK's de facto official language is English. Four Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Welsh , Irish , Scottish Gaelic and Cornish.

Scots , a language descended from early northern Middle English , has limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.

It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh.

Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over years. In the census Islam , Hinduism , Judaism , etc.

The Church of England is the established church in England. It is not subject to state control , and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government " upon his or her accession.

The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. London held around half of this population, and other small communities existed in Manchester, Bradford and elsewhere.

The German immigrant community was the largest group until , when it became second to Russian Jews. After Russian Jews suffered bitter persecutions, and, out of some 2,, who left Russia by , around , settled permanently in Britain, overtaking the Germans to be the largest ethnic minority from outside the British Isles.

In the net increase was , Immigration is now contributing to a rising population [] with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between and Over a quarter In , approximately , foreign nationals were naturalised as British citizens, the highest number since records began in This figure fell to around , in Between and , the average number of people granted British citizenship per year was , The British Government has introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.

Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between and around Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system.

Considering the four systems together, about 38 percent of the United Kingdom population has a university or college degree , which is the highest percentage in Europe, and among the highest percentages in the world.

Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education , the day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities.

Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in were state-run grammar schools. Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning , with day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities.

Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.

The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language ; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education , although responsibility at a local level is administered by the Education Authority which is further sub-divided into five geographical areas.

Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care , together with alternative , holistic and complementary treatments.

Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organization , in , ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.

However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives ; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive ; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government ; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government.

Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts. The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower".

Most British literature is in the English language. In , some , books were published in the United Kingdom and in it was the largest publisher of books in the world.

The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time, [] [] [] and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem.

Wells ; the writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling , A. Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene ; [ citation needed ] the crime writer Agatha Christie the best-selling novelist of all time ; [] Ian Fleming the creator of James Bond ; the poets T.

Rowling ; the graphic novelists Alan Moore and Neil Gaiman. Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle the creator of Sherlock Holmes , romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott , the children's writer J.

Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin 's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks.

He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age. Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases.

Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the midth century. He is remembered for his poetry—his " Do not go gentle into that good night ; Rage, rage against the dying of the light" is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse—and for his "play for voices", Under Milk Wood.

The influential Church in Wales "poet-priest" and Welsh nationalist R. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK.

Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of England , Wales , Scotland and Northern Ireland to heavy metal. Sir Harrison Birtwistle is one of the foremost living composers.

George Frideric Handel became a naturalised British citizen and wrote the British coronation anthem, while some of his best works, such as Messiah , were written in the English language.

His works have dominated London's West End since the late 20th century and have also been a commercial success worldwide.

The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music.

A number of UK cities are known for their music. Acts from Liverpool have had 54 UK chart number one hit singles, more per capita than any other city worldwide.

As of , pop remains the most popular music genre in the UK with The history of British visual art forms part of western art history. Major British artists include: During the late s and s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as the " Young British Artists ": The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom.

Major schools of art in the UK include: The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art. The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema.

The British directors Alfred Hitchcock , whose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time , [] and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time.

Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence.

British cuisine developed from various influences reflective of its land, settlements, arrivals of new settlers and immigrants, trade and colonialism.

Celtic agriculture and animal breeding produced a wide variety of foodstuffs for indigenous Celts and Britons. Anglo-Saxon England developed meat and savoury herb stewing techniques before the practice became common in Europe.

The Norman conquest introduced exotic spices into England in the Middle Ages. British cuisine has absorbed the cultural influence of those who have settled in Britain , producing many hybrid dishes, such as the Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.

The BBC , founded in , is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world.

Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively.

In , it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3. In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the ' Scottish School of Common Sense '.

Two Britons are also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianism , first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism.

Major sports, including association football, tennis , rugby union , rugby league , golf , boxing , netball , rowing and cricket , originated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it.

With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th century Victorian Britain , in , the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge , stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognised as the birthplace of modern sport.

It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations.

It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum". In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales.

Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games.

There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team.

The , and Summer Olympics were held in London, making it the first city to host the games three times. Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count.

A poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom. The English top division, the Premier League , is the most watched football league in the world.

In , rugby union was ranked the second most popular sport in the UK. Sport governing bodies in England , Scotland , Wales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately.

Cricket was invented in England, and its laws were established by Marylebone Cricket Club in Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players.

Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past.

Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals and Ireland is yet to play their first test match.

There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the s, before spreading around the world.

The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One F1 are based in the UK, and the country has won more drivers' and constructors' titles than any other.

The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship. Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the UK.

Rugby league originated in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire in and is generally played in Northern England. Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe.

The 'Queensberry rules' , the code of general rules in boxing , was named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in , and formed the basis of modern boxing.

It was created in by the superimposition of the Flag of England on the Flag of Scotland and updated in with the addition of Saint Patrick's Flag.

Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom.

The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out. Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain.

She holds Poseidon 's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion.

A second, less used, personification of the nation is the character John Bull. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.

United Kingdom — Wikipedia book. Great Britain is made up of England, Scotland and Wales. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

It is not to be confused with Great Britain , its largest island whose name is also loosely applied to the whole country. For other uses of "UK", see UK disambiguation.

For other uses of "United Kingdom", see United Kingdom disambiguation. Royal coat of arms [note 1]. Show map of Europe. England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales.

Britain place name and Terminology of the British Isles. History of the British Isles. History of the United Kingdom.

Acts of Union Political history of the United Kingdom —present and Social history of the United Kingdom —present. Geography of the United Kingdom.

Skye is one of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides and part of the Scottish Highlands. Climate of the United Kingdom.

The four countries of the United Kingdom. Administrative geography of the United Kingdom. Politics of the United Kingdom.

Queen Elizabeth II , Monarch since Theresa May , Prime Minister since Government of the United Kingdom.

Law of the United Kingdom. Foreign relations of the United Kingdom. Economy of the United Kingdom. The City of London is one of the world's largest financial centres [] [] [].

Science and technology in the United Kingdom. Transport in the United Kingdom. Energy in the United Kingdom. Water supply and sanitation in the United Kingdom.

Demography of the United Kingdom. Ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Languages of the United Kingdom. Religion in the United Kingdom.

Modern immigration to the United Kingdom. Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom. Education in the United Kingdom.

Education in Northern Ireland. Healthcare in the United Kingdom. Culture of the United Kingdom. Music of the United Kingdom. Rock music in the United Kingdom.

Art of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom. Media of the United Kingdom. Sport in the United Kingdom. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem.

The words Queen, she, her , used at present in the reign of Elizabeth II , are replaced by King, he, him when the monarch is male.

Gibraltar and the British Indian Ocean Territory. When it took effect one year later, it established the Irish Free State as a separate dominion within the Commonwealth.

The UK's current name was adopted to reflect the change. Official web site of the British Royal Family. Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 12 December UK - Content design: Census reveals a picture of Britain today".

Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" PDF. United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 9 August Office for National Statistics.

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The Journal of Federalism. Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 10 January Retrieved 24 June Article 50 officially triggered on historic day as Theresa May warns: Other mammals found in Greater London are hedgehogs , rats, mice, rabbit, shrew, vole, and squirrels, [] In wilder areas of Outer London, such as Epping Forest , a wide variety of mammals are found including hare , badger , field, bank and water vole , wood mouse , yellow-necked mouse , mole , shrew , and weasel , in addition to fox, squirrel and hedgehog.

A dead otter was found at The Highway, in Wapping , about a mile from the Tower Bridge , which would suggest that they have begun to move back after being absent a hundred years from the city.

Unnatural History of London" shows pigeons using the London Underground to get around the city, a seal that takes fish from fishmongers outside Billingsgate Fish Market , and foxes that will "sit" if given sausages.

Herds of red and fallow deer also roam freely within much of Richmond and Bushy Park. A cull takes place each November and February to ensure numbers can be sustained.

A rare population of melanistic , black fallow deer is also maintained at the Deer Sanctuary near Theydon Bois. Muntjac deer , which escaped from deer parks at the turn of the twentieth century, are also found in the forest.

While Londoners are accustomed to wildlife such as birds and foxes sharing the city, more recently urban deer have started becoming a regular feature, and whole herds of fallow deer come into residential areas at night to take advantage of London's green spaces.

The census recorded that 2,, people or Note that some of the German-born population, in 18th position, are British citizens from birth born to parents serving in the British Armed Forces in Germany.

With increasing industrialisation, London's population grew rapidly throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, and it was for some time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the most populous city in the world.

Its population peaked at 8,, in immediately before the outbreak of the Second World War, but had declined to 7,, at the Census. However, the population then grew by just over a million between the and Censuses, to reach 8,, in the latter enumeration.

Ethnic groups in the census []. According to the Office for National Statistics , based on the Census estimates, Indians account for 6.

Chinese peoples account for 1. Black Africans account for 7. Across London, Black and Asian children outnumber White British children by about six to four in state schools.

The census showed that According to the Census , the largest religious groupings are Christians London has traditionally been Christian, and has a large number of churches , particularly in the City of London.

The well-known St Paul's Cathedral in the City and Southwark Cathedral south of the river are Anglican administrative centres, [] while the Archbishop of Canterbury , principal bishop of the Church of England and worldwide Anglican Communion , has his main residence at Lambeth Palace in the London Borough of Lambeth.

Important national and royal ceremonies are shared between St Paul's and Westminster Abbey. Church attendance continues on a long, slow, steady decline, according to Church of England statistics.

London is also home to sizeable Muslim , Hindu , Sikh , and Jewish communities. Large Hindu communities are in the north-western boroughs of Harrow and Brent , the latter of which hosts what was, until , [] Europe's largest Hindu temple , Neasden Temple.

There are Sikh communities in East and West London, particularly in Southall, home to one of the largest Sikh populations and the largest Sikh temple outside India.

It is the only synagogue in Europe which has held regular services continuously for over years. Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue has the largest membership of any single Orthodox synagogue in the whole of Europe, overtaking Ilford synagogue also in London in There are many accents traditionally associated with London.

The most well known of the London accents long ago acquired the Cockney label from London's East End , which is heard both in London itself, and across the wider South East England region more generally.

Since the turn of the century the Cockney dialect is less common in the East End and has 'migrated' east to Havering and the county of Essex.

One way to get an idea of their relative importance is to look at relative amounts of office space: London has some of the highest real estate prices in the world.

London is one of the pre-eminent financial centres of the world as the most important location for international finance. For many bankers established in Amsterdam e.

Hope, Baring , this was only time to move to London. The London financial elite was strengthened by a strong Jewish community from all over Europe capable of mastering the most sophisticated financial tools of the time.

By the end of the 19th century, Britain was the wealthiest of all nations, and London a leading financial centre. Kearney's Global Cities Index. London's largest industry is finance, and its financial exports make it a large contributor to the UK's balance of payments.

Around , people were employed in financial services in London until mid London has over overseas banks, more than any other city in the world.

Because of its prominent global role, London's economy had been affected by the financial crisis of — However, by the City has recovered; put in place new regulatory powers, proceeded to regain lost ground and re-established London's economic dominance.

Over 70 per cent of the FTSE are within London's metropolitan area, and 75 per cent of Fortune companies have offices in London.

Media companies are concentrated in London and the media distribution industry is London's second most competitive sector. Many national newspapers are edited in London.

In April , the city was among the first to receive a geoTLD. The gas and electricity distribution networks that manage and operate the towers, cables and pressure systems that deliver energy to consumers across the city are managed by National Grid plc , SGN [] and UK Power Networks.

London is one of the leading tourist destinations in the world and in was ranked as the most visited city in the world with over 65 million visits.

In the top most-visited attractions in the UK were all in London. The top 10 most visited attractions were: The number of hotel rooms in London in stood at ,, and is expected to grow over the years.

Transport is one of the four main areas of policy administered by the Mayor of London, [] however the mayor's financial control does not extend to the longer distance rail network that enters London.

In he assumed responsibility for some local lines, which now form the London Overground network, adding to the existing responsibility for the London Underground, trams and buses.

The lines that formed the London Underground, as well as trams and buses, became part of an integrated transport system in when the London Passenger Transport Board or London Transport was created.

Transport for London is now the statutory corporation responsible for most aspects of the transport system in Greater London, and is run by a board and a commissioner appointed by the Mayor of London.

London is a major international air transport hub with the busiest city airspace in the world. Eight airports use the word London in their name, but most traffic passes through six of these.

Additionally, various other airports also serve London, catering primarily to general aviation flights. The London Underground , commonly referred to as the Tube, is the oldest [] and third longest [] metro system in the world.

The system serves stations [] and was formed from several private companies, including the world's first underground electric line, the City and South London Railway.

There are more than railway stations in the London Travelcard Zones on an extensive above-ground suburban railway network.

South London, particularly, has a high concentration of railways as it has fewer Underground lines. Most rail lines terminate around the centre of London, running into eighteen terminal stations , with the exception of the Thameslink trains connecting Bedford in the north and Brighton in the south via Luton and Gatwick airports.

With the need for more rail capacity in London, Crossrail is due to open in It will be a new railway line running east to west through London and into the Home Counties with a branch to Heathrow Airport.

London is the centre of the National Rail network, with 70 percent of rail journeys starting or ending in London.

Some international railway services to Continental Europe were operated during the 20th century as boat trains , such as the Admiraal de Ruijter to Amsterdam and the Night Ferry to Paris and Brussels.

The opening of the Channel Tunnel in connected London directly to the continental rail network, allowing Eurostar services to begin.

Since , high-speed trains link St. Although rail freight levels are far down compared to their height, significant quantities of cargo are also carried into and out of London by rail; chiefly building materials and landfill waste.

London's bus network is one of the largest in the world, running 24 hours a day, with about 8, buses, more than bus routes and around 19, bus stops.

London has the largest wheelchair accessible network in the world [] and, from the 3rd quarter of , became more accessible to hearing and visually impaired passengers as audio-visual announcements were introduced.

The distinctive red double-decker buses are an internationally recognised trademark of London transport along with black cabs and the Tube.

London has a modern tram network, known as Tramlink , centred on Croydon in South London. London's first and only cable car, known as the Emirates Air Line , opened in June Crossing the River Thames , linking Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks in the east of the city, the cable car is integrated with London's Oyster Card ticketing system, although special fares are charged.

Similar to the Santander Cycles bike hire scheme, the cable car is sponsored in a year deal by the airline Emirates. In the whole Greater London Area, around , people use a bike everyday.

Cycling is nevertheless becoming increasingly popular way to get around London. The launch of a cycle hire scheme in July has been successful and generally well received.

The London Cycling Campaign lobbies for better provision. From being the largest port in the world, the Port of London is now only the second-largest in the United Kingdom, handling 45 million tonnes of cargo each year.

London has frequent river boat services on the Thames known as Thames Clippers. The Woolwich Ferry , with 2. Other operators run both commuter and tourist boat services in London.

Although the majority of journeys involving central London are made by public transport, car travel is common in the suburbs. The inner ring road around the city centre , the North and South Circular roads in the suburbs , and the outer orbital motorway the M25 , outside the built-up area encircle the city and are intersected by a number of busy radial routes—but very few motorways penetrate into inner London.

A plan for a comprehensive network of motorways throughout the city the Ringways Plan was prepared in the s but was mostly cancelled in the early s.

London is notorious for its traffic congestion, with the average speed of a car in the rush hour being In , a congestion charge was introduced to reduce traffic volumes in the city centre.

London is a major global centre of higher education teaching and research and has the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe.

A number of world-leading education institutions are based in London. With , students in London, [] the federal University of London is the largest contact teaching university in the UK.

Leisure is a major part of the London economy, with a report attributing a quarter of the entire UK leisure economy to London [] at Within the City of Westminster in London, the entertainment district of the West End has its focus around Leicester Square , where London and world film premieres are held, and Piccadilly Circus , with its giant electronic advertisements.

The city is the home of Andrew Lloyd Webber , whose musicals have dominated the West End theatre since the late 20th century.

Islington 's 1 mile 1. Oxford Street is home to vast numbers of retailers and department stores , including the world-famous Selfridges flagship store.

London offers a great variety of cuisine as a result of its ethnically diverse population. Gastronomic centres include the Bangladeshi restaurants of Brick Lane and the Chinese restaurants of Chinatown.

There is a variety of annual events , beginning with the relatively new New Year's Day Parade , a fireworks display at the London Eye ; the world's second largest street party , the Notting Hill Carnival , is held on the late August Bank Holiday each year.

Traditional parades include November's Lord Mayor's Show , a centuries-old event celebrating the annual appointment of a new Lord Mayor of the City of London with a procession along the streets of the City, and June's Trooping the Colour , a formal military pageant performed by regiments of the Commonwealth and British armies to celebrate the Queen's Official Birthday.

London has been the setting for many works of literature. William Shakespeare spent a large part of his life living and working in London; his contemporary Ben Jonson was also based there, and some of his work, most notably his play The Alchemist , was set in the city.

The literary centres of London have traditionally been hilly Hampstead and since the early 20th century Bloomsbury.

Writers closely associated with the city are the diarist Samuel Pepys , noted for his eyewitness account of the Great Fire , Charles Dickens , whose representation of a foggy, snowy, grimy London of street sweepers and pickpockets has been a major influence on people's vision of early Victorian London, and Virginia Woolf , regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the 20th century.

Modern writers pervasively influenced by the city include Peter Ackroyd , author of a "biography" of London, and Iain Sinclair , who writes in the genre of psychogeography.

London has played a significant role in the film industry. Major studios within or bordering London include Twickenham , Ealing , Shepperton , Pinewood , Elstree and Borehamwood , [] and a special effects and post-production community centred in Soho.

Working Title Films has its headquarters in London. Many television programmes have been set in London, including the popular television soap opera EastEnders , broadcast by the BBC since London is home to many museums , galleries, and other institutions, many of which are free of admission charges and are major tourist attractions as well as playing a research role.

The first of these to be established was the British Museum in Bloomsbury , in In , the National Gallery was founded to house the British national collection of Western paintings; this now occupies a prominent position in Trafalgar Square.

In the latter half of the 19th century the locale of South Kensington was developed as " Albertopolis ", a cultural and scientific quarter.

Three major national museums are there: The National Portrait Gallery was founded in to house depictions of figures from British history; its holdings now comprise the world's most extensive collection of portraits.

The Tate Gallery, as it was formerly known, also became a major centre for modern art; in , this collection moved to Tate Modern , a new gallery housed in the former Bankside Power Station.

London is one of the major classical and popular music capitals of the world and hosts major music corporations, such as Universal Music Group International and Warner Music Group , as well as countless bands, musicians and industry professionals.

Other significant instruments are at the cathedrals and major churches. Several conservatoires are within the city: London has numerous venues for rock and pop concerts, including the world's busiest arena the O2 arena [] and Wembley Arena , as well as many mid-sized venues, such as Brixton Academy , the Hammersmith Apollo and the Shepherd's Bush Empire.

London was instrumental in the development of punk music , [] with figures such as the Sex Pistols , The Clash , [] and Vivienne Westwood all based in the city.

More recent artists to emerge from the London music scene include George Michael 's Wham! In particular the genres UK garage , drum and bass , dubstep and grime evolved in the city from the foreign genres of hip hop and reggae , alongside local drum and bass.

A report by the City of London Corporation said that London is the "greenest city" in Europe with 35, acres of public parks, woodlands and gardens.

Close to Richmond Park is Kew Gardens which has the world's largest collection of living plants. Some more informal, semi-natural open spaces also exist, including the hectare acre Hampstead Heath of North London , [] and Epping Forest , which covers 2, hectares 6, acres [] in the east.

Both are controlled by the City of London Corporation. Epping Forest is a popular venue for various outdoor activities, including mountain biking, walking, horse riding, golf, angling, and orienteering.

Walking is a popular recreational activity in London. London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: London's most popular sport is football and it has six clubs in the English Premier League: From , the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team.

Twickenham Stadium in south-west London hosts home matches for the England national rugby union team and has a capacity of 82, now that the new south stand has been completed.

One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships , held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon.

London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's home of Middlesex C. Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon , in which some 35, runners attempt a From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the capital city. For the region and county of England, see Greater London. For the historic city and financial district within London, see City of London.

For other uses, see London disambiguation. History of London and Timeline of London. London in the UK and EU. Local government in London , History of local government in London , and List of heads of London government.

For more station data near London, see Geography of London. List of districts of London and London boroughs. Architecture of London , List of tallest buildings and structures in London , and List of demolished buildings and structures in London.

London maps showing the percentage distribution of selected races according to the Census. Ethnic groups in London. St Paul's Cathedral , the seat of the Bishop of London.

Transport in London and Infrastructure in London. List of annual events in London and West End theatre. List of people from London. Parks and open spaces in London and Royal Parks of London.

Aerial view of Hyde Park. James's Park lake with the London Eye in the distance. London and Paris are of broadly similar size in terms of total economic output which can result in third party sources varying as to which is the fifth-largest city GDP in the world.

The McKinsey Global Institute study used a metropolitan area with a population of Eurostat uses the sum of the populations of the contiguous urban core and the surrounding commuting zone as its definition.

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